## Quantum Model

Onion the Omniscientist: The principal quantum number describes the main energy level, also know as the electron shell. When n increases, so does its average distance and the required amount of energy. The total number of possible orbitals in a shell is equal to n^2. That number comes from the total number of possible orbitals shapes, also known as subshells, which are described by the angular momentum quantum number. The possible number of subshells is equal to n of the electron shell, ranging from 0 to n-1. In the first subshells when l=0, there is only one possible orbital shape that is best described as spherical. In the second subshells when l=1, it has a polar shape. In the third subshells when l=2, it has a four-leaf-clover shape.

There are letters that are designated to each of the subshells; these letters s, p, and d are designated to subshells 0, 1, 2 respectively. There are more subshells but another important subshell that is too complex for me to describe is the f subshell, when l=4. The next one, the Magnetic quantum number describes how the orbitals are located around the nucleus. Since the s orbital resembles a sphere, it has only one possible orientation centered around the nucleus where m=0. Each s subshell contains only one s orbital. The p orbitals have three possible orientations because they can lie on the x, y, or z axes, which means that there are three p orbitals, px, py, and pz, in each p subshell. They can be designated with these numbers m=-1, 0, and +1, in no particular order. The possible number of orbitals in a subshell can be the integers between –l and +l. For example, the d subshells have 5 d orbitals and they correspond to the values m=-2, -1, m=0, m=+1, and m=+2. (Note: The diagram shown below is not defining the electrons in an orbit (Rutherford-Bohr Model), but that the electrons can be located anywhere in their corresponding orbitals, shown as rings.)